In addition, there is not a clear distinction of ethical behavior based from the value that certain individuals possess p.
This is due to the fact that different segments within…. Administrator will be able to…. Administrators will understand that… the purpose of educational programs and accountability for….
American education system. According to Ruff and Costello The Center for Academic Integrity in one school year alone reported that nearly a third of the faculty of the schools surveyed reported that they caught their students purchasing term papers from these services and submitting them as their own. The questions we must ask ourselves: are the services ethical and if not then who should be held responsible for the unethical behavior?
One of these people, Elizabeth Campbell, asserts her perspectives throughout her text, The Ethical Teacher, wherein she describes the relationship between ethical knowledge and moral agency, the link between moral dilemmas and ethical knowledge, and the methods of lessening moral tensions in education.
I would love to believe that the world is made up of individuals that have a high level of integrity and pure ethical fibers; however, this is not the world in which we live in. Ethics or rather morals entail mechanisms that defend, systematize as well as recommend conceptions of right or wrong, good and bad. Interestingly, many organizations have to develop ethical codes to ensure employees and employers understand the difference in doing right or wrong.
It is no secret that ethics are…. Therefore ethical processes lead to good personal ethics with the emphasis in creating better organizations and societies.
Ethics Plato. Essays Essays FlashCards. Browse Essays. Show More. According to Hugh , this action may not benefit all instantaneously but will lead to greater consequences for all affected.
Four non — consequentialist theories will be presented. Natural rights theorists believe that all human beings have basic human rights and these must be protected despite the possible consequences Burgh et al. In this case, the teacher would look to the Declaration of the rights of the child , for the rights that may be violated from her decisions. Social contract refers to the formal and informal rights and duties one has as a member of a society, depending on the situation there can be multiple social contracts Burgh et al.
According to Rousseau Burgh et al. In this situation the teacher has a social contract as a teacher, involving informal duties to protect her students as well as formal duties outlined by policy and legislation. Divine command theorists believe that decisions and acts are solely driven by duties set by their own higher authority or deity Graber, For example, if the teacher was a Buddhist, she would not support McJacks as it is against. Ethical Decision Making Models Essay Introduction Ethical responsibilities are relevant in business, education, and other institutions and communities.
Free Essays from Bartleby | Facing Ethical Decisions How does a person determine what is right or wrong when making a decision? Most people faced with an. Free Essay: Introduction Generally, ethics is defined as standards of performance that explains how human beings should opt to react during many.
Words: - Pages: 5. Police officers in the United Kingdom are given the discretion that if the suspect poses a threat to themselves or to the public, the officers can protect or prevent injury to both themselves and others by whatever is deemed necessary. This could include the use of deadly force. Police officers must have a justification for the use of deadly force and this is based upon the regulation of the agency but most importantly their own analytical and ethical decision making.
The National Decision making Model is a framework which helps support and encourage police officers to make the morally correct outcome in everyday situations not just those which requires firearms to be implemented. These models all have the similar common values, so were brought together to form the National Decision Model, whilst keeping the benefits of simplicity and utilizing the intrinsic aspects from documents such as: The Peelian Principles, Human Rights Act and Force Values etc ACPO n.
This is to be considered at each stage of the model, because the role and expectation of the police service is required to be both ethically and technically correct ACPO n. Surrounding this central concept is five action points that collaboratively contribute to an effective decision making process.
These are; gather available information and intelligence, assess threat and risk level, consider powers and policies, identify options and contingences and take action and review ACPO n. The ethical issue I have chosen to discuss within this essay is whether police should be routinely armed and the ethical example I am going to use to best demonstrate my facts is the case of Jean Charles de Menezes, who was tragically killed in July In order to form a balanced argument I am going to research and explain two ethical theories, the utilitarian approach and the justice approach.
I will then apply both of these theories towards my ethical issue of arming the police and discuss how each theory stands in relation to this ethical issue. Furthermore this emphasis is increased in situations such as arming the police and ensuring that there is evidence of moral justifications for their implementation. Multiple philosophical theorists have argued alternative justifications through the use of philosophical theories towards ethical issues such as arming the police; however this essay will focus on primarily examining the utilitarian approach and the justice approach.
I have chosen these two differing theories as their opinions towards arming the police are very different and almost contradict one another, so therefore will form the basis of this essay.
On the 22nd July , at approximately 9. Despite this the suspect walked into the underground, went down the escalator and apparently heard his tube leaving so jogged down the stairs and into the carriage where he sat down and started to read his newspaper BBC News It was then that the officers were told over the radio that the situation was a code red, thus being shot to stop. At Ivor reported that the suspect appeared very agitated and therefore pinned him back into his seat as he proceeded forward.
Seeing this, the firearm officers named Charlie 12 and Charlie 2 for identifiable reasons shot the suspect believed to be Mr Osman seven times in the head, to ensure what they believed as the threat was over Telegraph However, it turned out the man they believed to be Hussain Osman, was in fact Jean Charles de Menezes, a normal family man, who was an electrician by trade on the way to a job in North West London that day, who had no connection to terrorism. I will now discuss the utilitarian approach which evolved in Great Britain over the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries by Jeremy Bentham, John Stuart Mill and Henry Sidgwick, who together succeeded in developing this into a practical and rational theory, which we can find today within our modern society Genniet There are four theses combined to make utilitarianism, these are; Consequentialism, which is the relevance of actions that are determined solely by their consequences.
Hedonism, which is the so called good that each human seeks to achieve, and utility to which is the degree an act produces pleasure. Maximalism, which is the right action producing the most good and thus causing the least bad, and finally Universalism, which is how the consequences affect everyone Waight Within utilitarianism happiness is about reaching the biggest state of contentment and pleasure that every human being strives for.
Utilitarianism is based on the principle of Utility, which is found in everything that contributes to happiness of every rational human being Genniet The utilitarianism approach is classified as a consequentialist ethical theory, so this simply means that a judgment is made on morality of an action in relation to the consequences or results of that action Mackie Consequentialism within utilitarianism is the fact that an action must be judged for its consequences on the happiness of the largest number Mill So in simple terms this means within utilitarianism the belief is; there is a choice between courses of action and the most ethical one will produce the greatest happiness and cause the least harm, not only to the individual, but for all who are in any way affected Mackie Utilitarianism does not care if that action is formed by lies, manipulation, or coercion as long as it produces the greatest benefits Velasquez et al The strengths of the utilitarian approach is that it is a simple clear systematic method to ethics and cannot be faulted on its morals, as it tries to establish the greatest happiness and fairness of the greatest number or party involved Mackie Bentham states that utilitarianism considers all the consequences from differing actions, which is vital in building a civilized society Troyer An example of this could be, when we build a new road, instinctively knowing that traffic fatalities will occur, we are analysing that the sacrifice is worth making for the greater good that will follow Gillette n.
In terms of the theory, these decisions are crucial in order to live and further develop the world we live in, otherwise society will stand still.
Researchers have argued that there are many weaknesses and implications within the utilitarian approach and one strong weakness is that according to this ethical theory there would be no moral absolutes. For example, things that are always right or wrong whatever the circumstances or actions may be, would not exist Mackie Many have argued with the concepts of utilitarianism, as some state that it does not relate well to human beings, instead treating individuals as objects used in connection with increasing happiness Gillette n.
This is furthered by that fact that utilitarian theories make it morally permissible to imprison, torture and murder individuals, whether innocent or guilty, in order to achieve the greater good Gillette n. Although these are all strong weaknesses within utilitarianism, strong believers of this theory like Bentham and Mill, have confidence in that the strengths outweigh these perceived flaws. I will now discuss the utilitarian approach in relation to my ethical issue of arming the police and my working scenario of the Menezes case.
In its simplest the utilitarian belief is that the most ethical action will produce the greatest happiness and cause the least harm to all who are in any way affected Mackie This is because having a society which police officers are routinely armed with guns that are capable of delivering lethal and life threating force; it can be seen as a method of protection and prevention for both the police and greater community. This links to the utilitarian approach in terms of sparing the lives of the many which outweigh the potential lives of a few.
However, the risk of injuring to the many can be exacerbated as there is a potential for the police officers weapons to be used for wrong doing or the criminal believing that they should be armed as well, like within an Americanised society.
In principle, Felicia's decision to violate confidentiality was ethical under the circumstances but Cooper's model would have required closer attention to the phase pertaining to projecting the probable consequences of the decision on Felicia's part to fully satisfy her respective ethical obligations. She has just published a paper on the relationship between pesticide exposure and PD in a prestigious journal. It gives counselors a protocol to determine the appropriate course of action when faced difficult challenge. The decisions are guided by principles, comprehending the facts, making a valid argument and lastly ethics basically entails discerning between right and wrong Brusseau. APA Ethics Code. That's just the way it's done, one might argue.
This would then flaw the utilitarian approach as by criminals having guns, its main principle theme of achieving greatest happiness by causing least harm, would be not be entirely applicable. In the terms of utilitarianism and specific to the Menezes case, shooting an individual or suspected individual who poses a risk to innocent civilians is justified because the death on that individual would mean sparing the lives of many others.
Furthermore, the officers involved in this situation can be seen to have followed the ethical framework, the National Decision Model to aid there decision making. They did this by gathering the apparent intelligence from the control room, assessing the threat to themselves and the public which informed them that they were under red alert and to use lethal force in order to stop the risk of the bomb being detonated and prevent fatalities.
When the situation arose the officer decided that it was necessary to take action and did what was needed to be done. However, as the final stage of the National Decision making Model is to review what happened, in this case it turned out that the information they had received was not hundred percent accurate and thus resulted in killing an innocent member of society, Mr Jean Charles de Menezes.
Justice has multiple meanings within different context for example the importance of having rights, equality and fairness. Surrounding this concept are theories which cannot solely be related to moral theories because justice and morality can be separate notions within themselves Gray The underpinning moral question this approach asks are; how fair is the action, how does it treat everyone in the same way, or does it show discrimination and favouritism.
Discrimination and favouritism within the justice approach focuses on how unfairly benefits or burdens are dispensed among members in a group without justifiable reason, even though those members are the same as other members within that group Velasquez et al In simple terms the justice approach finds that moral decisions must be based on standards of equality, impartiality and fairness Daft and Marcic A leading individual within the justice approach is Rawls, who rejects the utilitarian approach with its basis on maximising happiness and formulating a social contract through establishing principle of justice Rawls Following this Rawls predicts that two essential features would become apparent in society, firstly people have the same equal rights to certain basic liberties for example freedom of life, freedom of speech and thought and freedom to participate in government.